Painful menstruation or dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea) is the most common occurrence that almost every woman faces. Speaking in scientific language, dysmenorrhea is a pain of varying intensity that a woman experiences during menstruation.
The manifestation of dysmenorrhea in each woman is different, but most often women experience pain that is aching, cramping and even piercing, in the pelvic area on the first day of menstruation or 10-12 hours before the onset of bleeding. As a rule, a woman experiences pain during the first two days of the cycle, which then gradually subsides. Pain can spread to the bladder, rectum and lumbar region. Symptoms such as weakness, nausea, fever, increased anxiety, irritability, drowsiness or insomnia are also characteristic of dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea).
Experts identified three degrees of dysmenorrhea, depending on the severity of symptoms:
- The pains having moderate character accompanied by an insignificant indisposition. Since this degree of dysmenorrhea is very easy, therefore, it does not carry any impairment of performance or failure in the mode. However, without timely medical treatment, this form of dysmenorrhea can gradually become more severe, accompanied by longer painful sensations and malaise.
- Severe abdominal pain, accompanied by general weakness of the body, headache, nausea, chills, frequent urination. This degree of dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea) is characterized by states of irritability, anxiety, and depressive states. In addition, many women with this form of dysmenorrhea suffer from insomnia during this period, have an increased appetite, and also do not tolerate many smells. In this case, there is a marked decrease in performance. Most often, this form of the disease requires the taking of drugs, individually selected by a specialist.
- Excessive pain in the abdomen and lower back, accompanied by severe weakness of the body and severe headaches. This form of dysmenorrhea is very rare. In this case, in women, menstruation proceeds with fever, pain in the heart, vomiting, often diarrhea, tachycardia. Fainting in this form of the disease is not so rare. This form of the disease reduces performance to a critical level. Acceptance of painkillers in this case does not provide any relief, only it injures the weakened body of a woman more. As a rule, dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea) in severe form is closely associated with congenital anomalies of the genital organs, which are diagnosed by ultrasound.
The main cause of painful menstruation is a failure in the synthesis of hormonal substances. This violation contributes to excessive accumulation of the hormone prostaglandin in the body, which is most painful for girls of 13-14 years of age and young women up to 23-25 years old. Dysmenorrhea, caused by hormonal disorders, is considered primary. Treatment of this disease is carried out with the help of medication (analgesics) or drugs containing progestin. In addition, combined oral contraceptives may be prescribed to relieve painful conditions during menstruation.
The causes of dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea) in women after 30-35 years can be some gynecological diseases, such as: adenomyosis, endometriosis, uterine myoma, inflammation of the pelvic organs. Therefore, painful conditions in the period of menstrual bleeding should not be ignored. Symptoms of this kind should be the cause of a referral to a gynecologist.
Painful periods in women after 30-35 years are considered secondary dysmenorrhea, requiring careful examination, which is appointed by the gynecologist with an obligatory ultrasound examination and examination by the surgeon of the pelvic organs. If in this case the woman uses the means of intrauterine contraception, then they should be removed. Reducing pain is recommended by taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Painful menstruation or dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea), even their mild form, signal disturbances in the body, which can be eliminated with the help of timely diagnosis.
Causes of primary dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea).
The manifestation of primary dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea), as a rule, occurs during adolescence and adolescence, during the onset of the first menstruation or a couple of years after it. Most often, the pain during menstruation during the first few years is quite tolerant, short-lived and does not affect the performance and physical activity. Concomitant symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, weakness, etc., are usually absent during adolescence. However, this does not mean that all these symptoms will not manifest in the future, accompanied by more severe and prolonged pain in the pelvic region. Given this, there are two forms of primary dysmenorrhea - compensated, characterized by the stability of painful conditions in the period of menstrual bleeding over time, and uncompensated, in which the strength and duration of pain increases over time (without medical intervention).
Depending on the body's response to the onset of menstruation, there are two types of primary dysmenorrhea. The first, adrenergic type of dysmenorrhea, in which there is an increase in the body's concentration of hormones (adrenaline, norepinephrine, dopamine), leading to hormonal disruption. In this case, women experience a severe headache, body temperature rises, red spots on the face and neck may appear, the gastrointestinal tract is disturbed, and heartbeat becomes more frequent. And also often there are problems with sleep. A woman with such conditions often has pale skin color, bluish color of the feet and hands because of the slow passage of blood through the small vessels in these areas. The second, parasympathetic type of dysmenorrhea, is a consequence of an increase in the level of serotonin in the cerebrospinal fluid. This type of dysmenorrhea is accompanied by vomiting, slow pulse, low body temperature, diarrhea. Frequent symptoms are also allergic reactions, swelling of the face, weight gain before menstruation.
Many experts, based on modern research, argue that primary dysmenorrhea in young women is nothing but the result of a disorder in hormonal, sexual and other body systems. In addition, 60% of young women complaining of painful menstruation have deviations in the development of connective tissue (dysplasia). The manifestation of dysplasia can also be expressed by changes in the vessels of the extremities, distortions of the skeleton (scoliosis, flat-footedness), myopia, etc. The main cause of dysplasia is considered to be an insufficient amount of magnesium in the blood, which is determined by biochemical blood tests.
Tuberculous damage to the genital organs can also cause primary dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea), which most often manifests itself with the onset of the first menstrual periods. Pain during menstruation does not have a clear localization and is accompanied by malaise. Exacerbation of pain occurs, as a rule, in spring and autumn.
Diseases of the nervous system, as well as disorders that are neurological in nature, are often the cause of primary dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea), since constant tension and emotional instability lead to a decrease in the threshold of pain sensitivity and an increase in pain perception.
Underdevelopment, bends of the body and malformations of the uterus (two-cavity, two-horned uterus) are also the cause of primary dysmenorrhea, since they impede the flow of menstrual blood from the uterus and increase uterine contractions.
Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea).
If you suspect primary dysmenorrhea, the patient should visit the gynecologist. In addition, ultrasound of the pelvic organs is assigned and hormonal status is determined. To more accurately determine the cause of primary dysmenorrhea, a full examination of the circulatory system, digestion, urination and mammary glands is appointed. Primary dysmenorrhea treatment is prescribed individually for each woman, depending on the cause that caused her.
If menstruation is painful, women are advised to follow some rules to relieve a painful condition in the future:
- stop drinking alcohol and cigarettes,
- refrain from sexual intercourse in the second phase of the menstrual cycle and during the menstruation period,
- try not to overcool,
- limit physical activity during menstruation, as well as in the second phase of the menstrual cycle,
- for severe pains, put a heating pad on your belly,
- try to cope with stress.
To prevent decompensation of primary dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea), maintaining the first pregnancy is important. Often, primary dysmenorrhea disappears after pregnancy and childbirth.
Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea can be carried out using both drug and non-drug methods. In the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, such physiotherapeutic methods as electrophoresis with novocaine to the solar plexus area and acupuncture are effective.
All drugs prescribed for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea can be divided into three groups: gestagens, hormonal contraceptives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Progestins are a group of hormones naturally produced in the body, or their synthetic analogues. As a rule, drugs with progesterone, close to natural, are prescribed for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. These drugs normalize the menstrual cycle, as well as reduce the level of prostaglandin in the female body. Progestin new generation, when properly applied, are an excellent means of treating dysmenorrhea, which has no side effects.
Hormonal contraceptives are used to treat primary dysmenorrhea in sexually active women. It is believed that the combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which include a synthetic analogue of estrogen, are an effective treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. The action of the COC is aimed at suppressing ovulation, during which there is a decrease in the level of prostaglandins in the menstrual blood, which leads to the elimination of symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea or their insignificant manifestation. The use of hormonal contraceptives also reduces intrauterine pressure, the frequency of contractions of the uterus muscles, which helps to eliminate or alleviate painful conditions during menstruation. In addition, the use of combined oral contraceptives reduces the risk of cancer of the genital organs in young women, improves skin condition, and is an excellent means of preventing ectopic pregnancy.
In addition, there are injection drugs that are often used in the treatment of dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea). The injection is done directly within the time limits established by the type of drug.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are also prescribed for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. As a rule, these remedies are recommended for young women who do not want to use hormonal drugs, or if for some reason they are contraindicated. NSAIDs are recommended to be used directly during menstruation with the appearance of painful conditions, since they have a pronounced analgesic effect. Drugs of this kind also reduce the level of prostaglandins in menstrual blood. The effect of NSAID occurs immediately after ingestion (due to rapid absorption) and lasts from two to six hours.
However, all modern drugs used to eliminate primary dysmenorrhea, have some contraindications to use. Progestogens should not be taken for inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, as well as after abortion. Injectable contraceptives are absolutely contraindicated in the presence of diabetes and viral hepatitis. Combined oral contraceptives are contraindicated if a woman is breastfeeding or has a tendency to thrombosis. In addition, in case of liver cirrhosis, epilepsy and kidney disease, COC is contraindicated. You can not take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the presence of asthma, urticaria, acute rhinitis.
In the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, the menstrual calendar should be maintained, where to record your feelings during the menstruation period. In addition, it is recommended to visit the gynecologist every three months.
Secondary dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea, painful menstruation).
As a rule, secondary dysmenorrhea is expressed by the pain of menstruation in women over thirty years of age, which are accompanied by profuse bleeding with clots and severe pain in the lumbar region.
Symptoms and causes of secondary dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) can be divided into four groups:
- emotional-mental states of depression of varying severity, irritability,
- vegetative - nausea, bloating, hiccups,
- vegetative-vascular - headaches, tachycardia, dizziness (fainting), numbness of limbs,
- exchange-endocrine - vomiting, pruritus, joint pain, weakness, etc.
The age and physical condition of a woman affects the severity of those or other symptoms. For example, in the presence of cardiovascular diseases, vegetative-vascular symptoms become more pronounced, in case of metabolic disorders, metabolic and endocrine symptoms appear. According to the observations of gynecologists, women over 40 are more pronounced depressive and other emotional and psychological symptoms of the disease.
As mentioned above, the main cause of painful menstruation at a young age are hormonal disorders. But with age, hormonal background normalizes, (especially after the birth of a child), which eliminates the release into the blood of substances that cause painful conditions. Therefore, secondary dysmenorrhea (algomenorrhea) in women after 30 years is a sign of organic changes in the pelvic organs, which may be due to genital tumors, inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, endometriosis, adhesions after surgery, pelvic veins.
In addition, it should be said that the use of intrauterine contraceptives may affect the pain of menstruation. Therefore, any painful sensations during menstruation in women using this type of contraception should be the reason for seeking a specialist.
Treatment and prevention of secondary dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation).
For the treatment of secondary dysmenorrhea used therapeutic and surgical methods. The surgical method is aimed at treating diseases identified during the examination in a patient (endometriosis or inflammatory diseases of the genital organs). As a result, secondary dysmenorrhea and its symptoms disappear by themselves.
The therapeutic method of treatment is aimed at reducing pain during menstruation by prescribing medications. It should be noted that women are not recommended to reduce pain during menstruation by self-prescribing and taking analgesics, because over time analgesics eliminate sensitivity to pain, thereby contributing to the progression of the disease without marked painful symptoms. This can be attributed to tranquilizers, which are applied, as a rule, with pronounced psychological symptoms of dysmenorrhea.
Types and forms of algomenorrhea
Painful sensations, a drop in blood pressure, fainting, and many other symptoms should not be accompanied by normal menstruation, because the process is physiological, designed by nature. However, life is different, and the cause of these phenomena is found.
Algodysmenorrhea (dysmenorrhea - according to the International Classification of Diseases), which occurs without any pathology in the pelvic organs, is called primary.
In such cases, it is often said that the pain is more “in the head,” since in addition to the painful sensations, there are other signs of involvement of the autonomic nervous system and neurohumoral disorders:
- головная боль такая же схваткообразная, как и в животе, или приступы мигрени, головокружение,
- падение артериального давления вплоть до обмороков,
- субфебрильная температура тела,
- бледность кожных покровов (лицо приобретает землистый оттенок),
- нарушения в работе желудочно-кишечного тракта (вздутие живота, сухость во рту, диарея, тошнота и рвота).
Sometimes one of the symptoms becomes dominant and it is not at all necessary that it be pain. Quite often, when algomenorrhea in the foreground is low blood pressure, leading to fainting.
If the pain during menstruation comes from the head, then the mechanism of its occurrence is all the more complicated because it is associated with various levels of neurohumoral regulation, therefore, primary dysmenorrhea is usually divided into:
- essentialwhich is based on lowering the sensitivity threshold, which is also considered to be a congenital feature of a woman,
- psychogenicwhich is associated with fears and anxieties, often unfounded, before the upcoming menstrual periods,
- spasmogeniccaused by spastic contractions of the uterine muscle layer.
Secondary dysmenorrhea is directly associated with inflammatory and other pathological processes affecting the pelvic organs, or with congenital features and abnormalities of the female genital organs (two-horned uterus with a closed horn, uterine bend, additional vagina, etc.) that can disrupt the normal flow of menstrual blood and thereby cause pain.
In this regard, secondary algodysmenorrhea is divided into congenital (malformations) and acquired (diseases of the female genital that have arisen in the process of life).
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Why does the lower back and lower abdomen hurt before menstruation?
If it is secondary or congenital primary algodysmenorrhea, then the main cause will be the pathology of the uterus or nearby organs of the small pelvis. Thus, to provoke pain in the lower abdomen or lower back can:
- anomalies of the anatomical structure, which violate the outflow of blood, and the congenital features of the body (increased pain sensitivity), which manifest themselves immediately from the beginning of the menarche and cause painful periods in adolescents,
- inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages, especially in the period of exacerbation. Usually, in such cases, the painful sensations are accompanied by fever, changes in the general blood test (increased ESR, leukocytosis), abundant intermenstrual secretions,
- endometriosis in all its forms, manifesting itself as burning, pulling, often “dagger” pains arising before menstruation and lasting for several days,
- adhesive disease in the pelvis,
- neoplasm of internal genital organs,
- foreign body in the uterus (intrauterine device, which will activate prostaglandins),
- hormonal effects: an increase in progesterone level, a decrease in estrogen and, as a result, the activation of prostaglandins, which will stimulate the reduction of smooth muscles, which will cause spastic pain,
- endometrial vasospasm and ischemia.
In addition to the above reasons, the prerequisites of menstrual pain will be neurohumoral disorders and features of the nervous system, characteristic of the primary algomenor.
Why does my head ache before menstruation?
Often, premenstrual syndrome is manifested not only by pain in the lower abdomen and lower back, but also by other unpleasant sensations that can be caused by:
- fluid retention and swelling,
- hormonal imbalances and changes in blood pressure as a result of this,
- microcirculation disorder,
- psycho-emotional state of a woman, autonomic dysfunction,
- a decrease in the level of endogenous opiates (endorphins, enkephalins).
Many women, anticipating the approach of menstruation, stock up on various antispasmodics and analgesics, and are somehow experiencing “critical” days, which is not considered correct.
Next month, the pain syndrome will take place again, so the approach should be comprehensive and focused on the cause.
Sometimes the pain during menstruation is so intense that it becomes necessary to call an ambulance brigade. This is especially true of primary algodysmenorrhea, when painful sensations are combined with vegetative disorders and are accompanied by a drop in blood pressure, nausea, vomiting and other manifestations.
We can agree that the woman herself cannot cope, the intramuscular injections of antispasmodics and analgesics, along with drugs that increase blood pressure, will have a positive effect, but this will not be long, and certainly not forever.
If the cause of pain is established, algodysmenorrhea is episodic in nature and does not knock a woman out of her usual rut, then you can have appropriate medications in your home medicine cabinet, use traditional medicine in the form of infusions and decoctions, massage the lower back and use a special plaster designed to relieve menstrual pain. Otherwise, treatment by a gynecologist will be the best solution.
Pain pills for menstruation
In case of pain during menstruation, such drugs as paracetamol, ibuprofen, diclofenac help well. They have a significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.
In cases of severe pain, women need stronger analgesics, so sometimes drugs containing codeine are prescribed. True, they just can not buy in a pharmacy, you need a prescription.
Many women are bypassed or spasmalgonic, but with intense pain and heavy bleeding this application is not the best solution.
And it is completely unacceptable to use aspirin and a warm heating pad to relieve menstrual pain (unfortunately, some practice this). In addition to increased bleeding, there is nothing to expect from such treatment. And in order to achieve the desired result, it is better to contact a specialist.
What examination is necessary to pass?
The first step to the correct diagnosis will be laboratory diagnosis:
- complete blood count (detailed),
- smears on flora and cytology,
- bacteriological examination of the cervix and cervix,
- determination of the level of sex hormones of the second phase of the cycle.
Mandatory in the diagnosis of algomenorrhea is an ultrasound of the pelvic organs using a transvaginal sensor. And in many cases, the examination with these measures can be limited without resorting to more complex instrumental diagnostics - hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. However, the latter in other cases (more often with secondary dysmenorrhea) can simultaneously become a medical procedure (excision of adhesions). But this is an invasive method, which is carried out with a lack of effectiveness of the rest.
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Treatment of Algomenorrhea
Treatment of pain during menstruation involves activities similar to those in the removal of pain.
The complex, as a rule, includes painkillers with antispasmodic effect. In addition, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory), antioxidant complex and sedatives are prescribed to correct the state of the central nervous system. A good effect can be obtained in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea with homeopathic remedies.
It is practically useless to fight the above-mentioned means with the monthly painful sensations caused by pathological processes in the pelvic organs.
Pain during menstruation is not such a harmless phenomenon, especially in case of primary algodismenorrhea, when it is very difficult to eliminate the cause.
Prevent pain and prepare properly for the arrival of "critical" days in the strength of the woman herself. This requires prevention, which includes simple measures:
- to regulate the mode of work and rest, ensuring full healthy sleep,
- avoid stressful and conflict situations, engage in auto-training and with a psychologist,
- eliminate bad habits (smoking),
- love coffee only in moderation during the daytime and eliminate it during menstruation,
- to balance nutrition, preferring yogurts, seafood, vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins A, B, E,
- not to ignore gymnastics and water procedures, especially swimming lessons,
- if necessary, take light tranquilizers and sedatives,
- follow the recommendations of the doctor for the correction of hormonal levels (oral contraceptives, progestogen).
Most of these activities relate to primary dysmenorrhea. For the secondary - the best prevention of menstrual pain will be the treatment of the underlying disease.
About the phenomenon of pain during menstruation, you can talk a lot and for a long time, where in each case there are nuances. However, it is obvious that it is necessary to fight with algodysmenorrhea, because continuing for years, it can “exhaust” a woman, deprive the joys of life and adversely affect the mental state.
Means for diagnosis and treatment exist, so it is not necessary to try to cope with the disease on their own. It would be more rational to visit a doctor, talk about the problem and solve it together.
Dysmenorrhea in women: what is it?
Dysmenorrhea is a form of menstrual disorder that women most often encounter and rarely see a doctor, preferring to deal with painful and unpleasant sensations only with painkillers and antispasmodics, which entails many problems. Very painful menstruation can serve as a "signal" of much more serious ailments than just the physiological features of the body. In addition, experts recommend to deal with this problem, so as not to experience regular stress every month.
For any woman, severe pain during menstruation in the lower abdomen or in the lumbar region is not only a physical discomfort, but also poor health and / or disability, including the inability to walk, for up to several days. Also at this time the psychoemotional state and working capacity worsens.
Primary Algomenorrhea: What is it?
- This menstrual disorder is not associated with any anatomical changes or abnormalities of the internal genital organs.
- Most often occurs in young girls during the first one and a half years after the onset of menstruation.
Primary algomenorrhea (algomenorrhea): symptoms of painful periods
- Abdominal pain (possibly spreading to the sacrum, lower back and groin area).
- Sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting and dizziness, as well as diarrhea and migraine-like headaches.
- In some cases, with painful menstruation, signs such as insomnia and depression, irritability, increased or decreased libido, excessive appetite, etc. are noted.
In each individual case, primary algodysmenorrhea can manifest itself, either in the form of most of the symptoms, or in some of them. In any case, even if menstruation gives you only some inconvenience, you need to visit gynecologist, because the problem of primary algodysmenorrhea can be much more serious. If there are no obvious and hidden pathologies, the doctor will select an effective therapy according to the individual characteristics of your body.
Secondary algomenorrhea: what is it and what are its symptoms?
- This is a disorder of the menstrual cycle, which is caused by various processes and pathologies in the pelvic organs, which include chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases of the internal genital organs, developmental abnormalities, etc.
- This type of painful menstruation is congenital and acquired.
- Most often manifested in women after 30 years.
- Symptoms: the same, which differ painful menstruation of other forms and types (severe or mild abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, general malaise, headaches, etc.).
There are three severity of the disease:
- light, which is characterized by moderate pain with a slight heaviness in the abdomen during the first few hours or one day,
- the average, which is characterized by discomfort and pain for several days, as well as headaches and diarrhea,
- severe, which is characterized by intense and prolonged (within 2–7 days), as well as severe pain in the lower back, sacrum, thighs and groin, and other symptoms.
Painful periods: causes
Why are the critical days for some women pass almost unnoticed, but for someone it is always a long, unpleasant and very painful process? Despite the fact that it is largely individual, there are a number of factors and reasons why some women have painful periods. These factors and causes include:
- age (above, it was stated that pain is possible in the period of formation of the menstrual cycle or after crossing the 30-year age line),
- type (primary and secondary forms),
- individual characteristics of the body, etc.
Why menstruation is painful (causes of painful syndrome):
- infectious and inflammatory processes and chronic diseases of internal genital organs, which include salpingo-oophoritis (acute or chronic), endometritis, etc.,
- hypoplasia, or underdevelopment of the uterus (smaller than the required size),
- endometriosis, or the spread of the inner layer of the uterus beyond its cavity (ovarian cyst, cervix, external genital endometriosis, etc.),
- adenomyosis, or the spread of endometrium into the body of the uterus,
- wrong position of the uterus,
- circulatory disorders of the pelvic organs,
- traumatic labor,
- surgery on the uterus and appendages,
- abnormal position or development of internal genital organs,
- adhesive disease
- disorders at the level of the central regions of the brain,
- intrauterine contraception,
- psychological factors, which include hypochondria, fear or rejection of menstruation, hysteria, etc.
In order to start treating pain during menstruation, a gynecologist needs to get the maximum amount of information, why menstruation is very abundant and painful. To do this, the patient must undergo an examination and diagnosis, as well as pass a number of assigned tests.
Any treatment begins with an initial consultation and consultation with a specialist, when all the necessary data is collected in order to understand the root causes and find a suitable way to cope with the problem. In order to understand what to do if the menstruation is very painful, the doctor will prescribe diagnostics and tests for the treatment of one or another type of menstrual disorder.
What diagnostic measures can be assigned:
- gynecological examination at the primary consultation,
- hysteroscopy and laparoscopy (only hospital according to indications),
- smear of the vagina, urethra and cervical canal and microscopy of the smear taken,
- ultrasound diagnostics (ultrasound) of the pelvic organs,
- PCR diagnostics for detection of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as various infections, viruses and microorganisms,
- tests for hormones and hormones (by the phases of the menstrual cycle).
In some cases, a consultation with a mammologist / endocrinologist and a consultation with a psychiatrist or psychologist are indicated.
To begin treatment of primary or secondary dysmenorrhea, the doctor needs the following information for analysis:
- about indisposition: how long ago it began, what symptoms are followed, whether there is weakness, a violation of the stool, nausea, where pain is located during menstruation, how long they last, etc.
- about previously transferred gynecological diseases or their absence, about operations, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, the presence of chronic forms of these diseases, etc.,
- how the menstrual cycle proceeds: at what age menstruation begins, how many days last, how abundant they are, what intervals between them, how regular cycles are, how often painful sensations, etc.
For the treatment of primary or secondary dysmenorrhea to be effective and as fast as possible, on the first visit for an examination gynecologist It is advisable to prepare the above information.
What is prescribed for pain during menstruation after examination and diagnosis?
Treatment, of course, is built according to an individual plan, according to the results of diagnostics and tests, as well as the collected history of health. If severe lower abdominal pain during menstruation is secondary dysmenorrhea, the doctor will look for the root cause, the main disease that caused the menstrual cycle.
As a rule, treatment consists of a whole complex of drug and non-drug measures:
- herbal medicines and a number of antispasmodic drugs (with the primary form of the disease and its mild and moderate severity),
- if abdominal pain during menstruation is triggered or manifested along with infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by viruses and bacteria, then antiviral drugs can be prescribed,
- если у заболевания есть сравнительно легкие психогенные причины, то назначается рефлексотерапия (препараты со слабым психостабилизирующим эффектом) и, возможно, консультация психолога,
- in complex treatment it is also possible to prescribe drugs and medicines that reduce cramps, serve as an analgesic,
- hormonal contraceptives can be prescribed, etc.
For successful treatment of lower abdominal pain during menstruation, physiotherapy is also prescribed in the form of:
- normalization of nutrition
- rational management of time for work and rest,
- enough time to sleep
- sufficient physical activity
- reduce and reduce stress and psychological situations, etc.
Repeated reception and treatment control
After the course of treatment, the patient must come to inspect and evaluate the results. If after the course or during it the pain in the lower abdomen during menstruation does not pass, then the treatment course is adjusted or completely changed. It may be necessary to undergo an additional examination.
The results and timing of treatment of lower abdominal pain during menstruation and recovery are always strictly individual and depend on the complexity and severity of the disease. If there are diseases that are sexually transmitted, treatment and prevention are also prescribed to the partner.
Rehabilitation and physiotherapy
Only after a complete and final recovery, the doctor discharges the patient with recommendations on observing sleep patterns, nutrition and physical exertion, it is also possible to prescribe vitamins and vitamin complexes to maintain and strengthen the immune system.
If the menstrual cycle disorder is not accompanied by any complications, pathologies, viral diseases, etc., then the best prevention will be the normalization of the lifestyle: giving up bad habits, moderate exercise, proper nutrition, taking vitamins and vitamin complexes. Details about the prevention of ailments can be clarified with your doctor.
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Description of the condition: do painful periods indicate ovulation?
Algomenorrhea is a painful course of menstruation, mainly due to excessive accumulation of prostaglandins in the body, resulting in asynchronous contractions of the uterus, causing pain.
Under the diagnosis of "algodysmenorrhea", "dysmenorrhea", "algomenorrhea" understand the same condition. So, if one of them is indicated in your medical record, you shouldn’t be afraid of an incomprehensible word, it all means painful menstruation.
If we turn to medical statistics, we can see that more than half of women (about seventy-five percent) are suffering from this condition. And this is only official data. Many do not tell the gynecologist about their problem or do not attend it at all.
The mechanism of development of algomenorrhea depends on what caused it. If a woman has any gynecological diseases, then, most likely, they caused the appearance of pain during menstruation.
In about half of the fair sex, pain is caused by an excessive accumulation of specific biologically active substances in the body, in particular, in the uterus, which are called prostaglandins. As a result of hormonal fluctuations at the end of the cycle (three to four days before the start of the next menstruation), their intensified synthesis begins. These substances are concentrated in the uterine wall (in the muscle layer of the body). During menstruation, prostaglandins inhibit the normal contraction of the uterus muscles, causing its chaotic work. As a result, the normal processes of blood circulation and nervous innervation are disrupted, and painful sensations appear.
In addition, prostaglandins reduce the production of specific enzymes that thin menstrual blood, thereby provoking the appearance of abundant blood secretions with clots.
For some, there is a misconception that pains during menstruation indicate ovulation has occurred. I must say that this is just a myth.
There is no connection between ovulation and the subsequent onset of painful menstruation.
Classification: primary and secondary algodysmenorrhea
Allocate primary and secondary algodismenorrhea.
Primary is formed most often with the establishment (the very beginning) of the menstrual function of girls. Basically, it is not a sign of any diseases of the sexual sphere. Most often it is associated with hormonal disorders in adolescence, constitutional features and psychogenic factors.
Secondary algomenorrhea is always formed against the background of gynecological diseases or developmental anomalies or the position of the reproductive organs. An important difference from primary algodysmenorrhea is that the secondary one appears after a long period of painless menstruation and is always accompanied by symptoms of the pathology that caused it.
In addition, algodismenorrhea is classified according to degrees of development:
- First degree algomenorrhea. Differs in the presence of mild pain in the lower abdomen, which sometimes go unnoticed or are considered a manifestation of mild discomfort during menstruation.
- Second degree algomenorrhea. Differs in moderate pulling and aching pain in the abdomen and other not very severe systemic disorders, which slightly worsen the general well-being of women.
- Third degree algomenorrhea. It is considered heavy and is expressed in painful pain during menstruation, which violate the usual way of life, forcing a woman to spend the entire period of menstruation in a horizontal position.
Causes: pelvic misalignment, hormonal imbalance, removal of polyps or ovarian cysts, reception of Duphaston, Clyra, Regulon cancellation, premenopause, IVF and others
The causes of algomenorrhea can be:
- hormonal imbalance in the body of a woman
- luteal insufficiency of the second phase of the menstrual cycle,
- abnormal development of the genitals (their underdevelopment or incorrect position in the pelvis),
- asthenic constitution of the body,
- frequent IVF tests,
- pelvic distortion,
- irregular sex life or its complete absence,
- gynecological pathologies (uterine myoma, endometriosis, varicose veins of the pelvic organs, adhesions, infectious and inflammatory diseases, and others),
- taking contraceptive hormones (Duphaston, Midiana, Postinor, Radon, Clyra) or the abolition of Regulon,
- violation of blood clotting,
- surgical procedures (for example, removal of ovarian cysts, polyps, diagnostic curettage),
Typical symptoms: fever, dizziness, swelling, poor or heavy discharge of blood with clots
The main symptom that distinguishes algodysmenorrhea is constant monthly pain syndrome of varying intensity. If a woman does not experience discomfort at every menstrual period, then most likely this diagnosis will be incorrect.
In addition, pain may be accompanied by:
- abdominal distention,
- upset stool
- scanty or copious secretions with clots,
- mood swings,
- sleep disorders
- excessive sweating
- shortness of breath.
But we must remember that all organisms are different: someone is limited to pain in the lower abdomen, and someone will “collect the whole bunch” of unpleasant symptoms at once. In the presence of gynecological problems, a woman, in addition to the main signs of algodimenorrhea, also experiences a number of signs of concomitant pathology.
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis: ultrasound, hysteroscopy and other methods
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of algodysmenorrhea do not have any clear and consistent action. The doctor always begins the study with the collection of complaints and a detailed history with the subsequent examination of the woman in a gynecological chair.
Sometimes this becomes enough to identify the cause of the monthly pain syndrome. If this is not enough, the gynecologist directs to undergo a series of additional examinations:
- collection of smears (necessary for the detection of inflammatory and infectious diseases),
- hormonal screening (allows you to identify possible hormonal disorders that contribute to the development of algomenorrhea),
- ultrasound diagnosis (reveals gynecological diseases, pathologies of the development and location of reproductive organs, adhesions, etc.)
- computed tomography (reveals anomalies of the situation, the development of reproductive organs, the presence of tumor formations and others),
- laparoscopy (used in severe cases, it allows to detect diseases and improper location of organs in the pelvis),
- hysteroscopy (allows you to assess the state of the inner uterine layer).
Depending on the results of the research, the patient is referred for consultation to other specialists (therapist, endocrinologist, neurologist, psychotherapist).
Treatment of painful periods in girls and women
Treatment of algomenorrhea usually complex. It directly depends on the cause of its occurrence. In the primary form of pathology, therapy is mainly aimed at suppressing unpleasant symptoms and reducing the level of prostaglandins in the blood, and in the secondary form - at treating the disease that caused discomfort during menstruation. I must say that there is no need to go to the hospital. Therapy of algomenorrhea is carried out on an outpatient basis, that is, it is enough to visit a gynecologist in the antenatal clinic and follow all of its recommendations.
General recommendations: proper nutrition, avoidance of stress, yoga
General recommendations are reduced to the normalization of lifestyle. For this you need:
- full and regular meals with enough fruits and vegetables in the daily diet, exclusion of products containing caffeine (black tea, coffee),
- physical activity (brisk walking, jogging, various gymnastic exercises),
- giving up bad habits (smoking, drinking alcohol),
- avoiding stress and emotional stress
- with overweight weight loss,
- personal hygiene,
- yoga (it contains special exercises that directly affect the state of the reproductive system).
Many people with pain during menstruation apply a hot water heater to the lower abdomen. It should be noted that this should not be done in any way, as this may aggravate the condition.
Drug therapy: hormonal, homeopathic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antispasmodics and other drugs
Basically, with the syndrome of painful menstruation, two types of drugs are prescribed:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that interfere with the synthesis of prostaglandins, as a result of which the woman stops experiencing pain or may notice a significant decrease in their intensity. These drugs include Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Nise, Aspirin, Meloxicam, Cefecon (suppositories) and others. The start of the reception should be about three to four days before the expected date of the beginning of the next menstruation (it is at this time that the body accumulates prostaglandins) and ends on the third day of menstruation (during this period the prostaglandins noticeably weaken)
- combination drugs, which are based on two active ingredients: an antispasmodic and an analgesic. They relieve excessive spasm of the uterine muscles and eliminate pain. Such medicines as Baralgin, Sedalgin, Tempalgin and others are used quite often.
But in some cases, the doctor may prescribe:
- sedatives (Persen, Novopassit and others),
- vitamin complexes (Complivit, Alphabet, Magne B6 and others),
- homeopathic remedies that normalize the menstrual cycle and facilitate the general condition during menstruation (Tazalok, Mastodinon, Remens, Menalgin and others),
- metabolic agents, in particular those that compensate for the lack of magnesium and potassium in the body, directly affecting the contractility of the uterus during the menstrual period (Asparkam, Panangin tablets and others),
- antispasmodics, relieving muscle spasm of the uterus (Sirdalud, Tizanidin, No-spa, Papaverin and others),
- hormonal drugs.
When algomenorrhea, which is caused by the presence of gynecological diseases, prescribed drugs to treat the causes of the appearance of painful menstruation. Therapy is chosen by the doctor individually for each patient.
Physiotherapy methods: massage, electrophoresis, acupuncture and other
Physiotherapy procedures are assigned to the woman in combination with the use of drugs. Apply them in the second phase of the cycle, when the body begins to prepare for the next menstruation. Ends on the last "nonmenstrual" day. Widely used:
- Massage fortifying, relaxing or gynecological (the doctor will advise you on the right look),
- ultrasound therapy
- diadynamic therapy (treatment by impulses of electric current),
- diathermy short-wave currents,
Folk remedies to eliminate pain
Although the effectiveness of treatment of folk remedies is not proven, they are successfully used by women during menstruation to alleviate the condition. Widely applied:
- Dandelion root:
- a teaspoon of roots is poured with a glass of water,
- boil for five minutes
- insist for two hours
- take half a cup twice a day before meals. It is advisable to start using the decoction a week before the expected start date of the next menstruation.
- Chamomile flowers:
- tablespoon of flowers pour a glass of boiling water,
- insist for thirty minutes
- the infusion is cooled, filtered and taken on the third part of the glass three times a day before eating during the menstruation period.
- Linden flowers:
- tablespoon of flowers pour a glass of boiling water,
- insist for twenty minutes
- take half a glass three times a day, regardless of the meal. Begin to use fake infusion should be three days before the expected date of the beginning of the next menstruation and finish on the third day of menstruation.
Infusions and decoctions of medicinal herbs have a beneficial effect on the body as a whole, have a calming, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.
Treatment prognosis and possible complications, consequences
Algodismenorrhea projections are positive. The primary form of the pathology is excellently stopped by taking medications and normalizing the lifestyle. The course and elimination of the secondary form directly depends on the treatment of the underlying disease. Therefore, when the appearance of unpleasant symptoms, you should not go to your gynecologist, as this may affect the further possibility of getting pregnant yourself, take out and give birth to a child normally.
Prevention: how often to be examined by a doctor
Prevention of algomenorrhea is reduced to:
- elimination of factors leading to its development,
- immediate visit to the gynecologist with the appearance of pain during menstruation for two cycles or more,
- timely diagnosis and treatment of gynecological diseases,
- observance of general medical recommendations (physical activity, elimination of bad habits, balanced diet, etc.),
- follow all the advice of the attending physician,
- preventive visits to the gynecologist at least twice a year.
At first glance, pain during menstruation is normal. But, having understood why they arise, we can say the opposite. Algomenorrhea is a pathology that requires special attention, since it can hide behind serious gynecological diseases that require certain treatment. Therefore, when the appearance of pain is necessary to consult a specialist.
What are the types of painful periods?
There is a primary and secondary algomenorrhea. The first type is a consequence of uterine muscle contraction and is found in every second woman. Single cases of painful periods are found in the remaining 30% of women, so you shouldn’t get scared ahead of time if you have one such case.
Secondary algomenorrhea usually caused by a disease of the reproductive system. This may be adenominoses, endometriosis, uterine fibrous nodes, uterine polyps, endometrial cancer, intestinal ischemia, diverticulitis, inflammation of the kidneys, etc. Also the cause may be intrauterine contraceptive, spiral.
How to determine if you have algodysmenorrhea and what kind? Today, doctors have good tools for diagnosing this disease. Needless to say, diagnosing yourself is exercise in useless? You should consult a doctor, he will prescribe an ultrasound examination only after the initial examination, which excluded other diseases of the reproductive system.But both ultrasound and laparoscopy are only auxiliary diagnostic methods.
Can this cure pain during menstruation?
The success of treatment depends on the type algomenorrhea, thorough and comprehensive selection of medicines (as well as non-drug effects), which are prescribed by a doctor taking into account the individual characteristics of each patient.
Because very often the pains when menstruation is caused by an unbalanced lifestyle, lack of an elementary regime, coupled with smoking, overwork, irregular work schedules, stress, caffeine abuse and the like, first of all you need to get rid of them. Women's health is a fragile thing, so it makes no sense to be surprised that it fails if you do not pay proper attention to your body.
Also often from algomenorrhea overweight women suffer, therefore strengthening the muscles through physical activity, normalization of weight and nutrition can also be prescribed by a doctor.
Pain can be caused the absence of in the diet of vitamins of groups A, B, E, lactobacilli, as well as vegetable oils, fish and seafood, vegetables and fruits. All this will need to be included in your new menu.
High performance show water procedures, classes in the pool. It is extremely important to normalize the central nervous system in case of primary algalisorrhea. To do this, you can engage in reflexology, yoga, sometimes they add light medication drugs.
As for the secondary algomenorrhea, then the essence of her treatment is usually in attempts to eliminate the cause of pain. Together with the elimination of the cause must go and pain. At the time of treatment, the doctor prescribes painkillers.
There are also unconventional, folk ways deal with this widespread female problem. It has long been observed that some herbs, properly processed and brewed, have a good effect in the fight against pain.
So if pour a glass boiling water one teaspoon of crushed root of elecampane, then strain and take four tablespoons a tablespoon, you can expect a positive effect.
Another recipe: a collection of herbs consisting of 5 g of cinnamon, 3 g of cloves and 50 g of pharmacy chamomile, is poured with a liter of water and boiled for half an hour over low heat with the lid closed. During attacks of pain, half a cup should be drunk, but not more than twice a day.
Still good in a way will be the root of lovering. 1 teaspoon of chopped lyubistics for a glass of water, then hold for 30 minutes in a closed water bath, strain the resulting broth through cheesecloth and take three times a day before meals in a tablespoon (you can take two).
Main women's mistake relatively algomenorrhea is fatalism. Many believe that the pain during menstruation is inevitable, and they need to endure or drown out anesthetic. In fact, of course, you need to address such a problem to the doctor and look for solutions, listen to the recommendations of the doctor, who then regularly and diligently put into practice. Women's pains are not dangerous by themselves, but they can be quite harmful if you start the situation by letting things go by chance.
- Return to the contents of the section "Gynecology"
The concept of "algomenorrhea"
The main role in the occurrence of pain syndrome with algodismenorrhea is played by prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are biologically active substances involved in the menstrual cycle and in labor. They contribute to the advancement of the egg through the fallopian tube and are responsible for the motility of sperm, activates the contractile activity of the uterus, which is necessary for the expulsion of blood and endometrium during menstruation and for the birth of the fetus during childbirth.
Symptoms of the disease
All manifestations of algomenorrhea can be divided into syndromes:
The pains of algomenorrhea, as a rule, are of a spastic nature, but they can be aching, jerking or throbbing. Pain in the lower back, sacrum, lower limbs, rectum or inguinal region. There are pains 12 hours before the onset of menstruation and last from 2 to 48 hours or the entire period of menstruation.
Emotional and mental disorders
Depression, apathy, irritability or anxiety appear, sleep is disturbed (daytime sleepiness and sleeplessness at night). Perhaps a complete lack of appetite (anorexia), or, on the contrary, excessive gluttony (bulimia), intolerance of smells, a change in taste.
Nausea, vomiting, belching, hiccups, chills, feeling hot, excessive sweating, fever up to 37 - 37.5. And also unbearable itching of the skin, dry mouth, false urge to defecate, frequent urination, flatulence.
Manifestations of fainting, headache and dizziness, increased or slowing of the heartbeat, beats and heart pain. Also characterized by cooling and numbness of the arms and legs, swelling of the face.
General sudden weakness, feeling of "wadded" legs, itchy skin, arthralgia (pain in the joints), vomiting, edema of the lower extremities, an increase in the amount of urine.
Manifestations of secondary algodysmenorrhea coincide with the above symptoms, but has its own characteristics characteristic of the gynecological disease that a woman suffers from.
Painful periods: what to do
In the treatment of primary algomenorrhea in the second phase of the menstrual cycle, you should abandon the use of strong tea, coffee, chocolate, alcohol and smoking. One day before menstruation and on the first day of menstruation it is recommended to take drugs that suppress the synthesis of prostaglandins (indomethacin, naproxen, Brufen, etc.). To relieve uterine muscle spasm, antispasmodics and analgesics are taken (no-shpa, papaverine, spazgan, ketorol, pentalgin, analgin, etc.). Oral low-dose contraceptives (femoden, janin, regulon) are prescribed for 3-6 months. The effect of estrogen-progestin drugs is explained by blocking ovulation and suppressing the growth of the endometrium during the secretory phase. Reception of sedatives (motherwort, valerian) and tranquilizers (phenazepam, Relanium, trioxazine) is shown. Phytopreparations are also prescribed (remens, klimadion, femizol) and physiotherapy.
The main causes of algomenorrhea
What is algomenorrhea? The disease is widespread among women who have entered reproductive age. Doctors classify the disease into two groups: primary and secondary.
Primary algomenorrhea is an independent pathology, which is most common in girls in adolescence. Secondary, on the contrary, can develop against the background of various diseases and is often observed in women after thirty years. The disease can occur as a result of severe inflammatory processes, operations and other damage.
Primary algomenorrhea develops as a result of abnormal development of the uterus, cervical atresia and other diseases in which blood flow is disturbed during menstruation.
In addition, algodysmenorrhea can occur against the background of the unsatisfactory psychological state of a woman. According to the doctors, the psychosomatic of pathology is determined by the rejection by the woman of her essence, the rejection of herself as a mother.
Another reason may be infantilism, mental or physical. Insufficient development of the myometrium strongly affects the uterus to stretch, reducing it. As a result, the pressure on the walls increases, which leads to pain. During such a period, the nerve fibers become especially sensitive.
Secondary algomenorrhea can develop on the background of inflammation of the female genital organs, as well as surgical abortions, surgical intervention, complications after childbirth. The reasons may be many. However, the most common factor in the development of the disease is endometriosis. This process is characterized by the proliferation of endometrial cells outside the uterus.
In addition, uterine fibroids can be a triggering factor. As a result, the normal blood outflow during menstruation is disturbed, and the uterus begins to contract faster than usual. As a result, increased pressure develops in the walls of the organ and the appearance of severe pain.
Sometimes the disease can develop after the intrauterine device has been established. It stimulates the release of prostaglandins, like all previous causes of the disease.
If inflammation is the cause of algomenorrhea, then in such cases adhesions form in the damaged area, which, in turn, provoke uterine deformity. As a result, the outflow of blood from it is disturbed. Moreover, in inflammatory processes, the tissues of the organs swell. Nerve fibers are compressed, causing pain. Often the pain is exacerbated by a more intense contraction of the uterus.
Symptoms of the disease
Algomenorrhea, whose symptoms and treatment depend on the general condition of a woman, both physically and mentally, requires increased attention from women. Common symptoms of the disease are pain before, during and after menstruation. When menstruation itself goes, they, as a rule, acquire the strongest character. Persistent discomfort in the lower abdomen is often accompanied by general malaise. So, for the primary algomenorrhea characterized by the following manifestations:
- vascular signs: fainting, headaches, pain in the heart area,
- mental signs: bulimia, anorexia, dysfunction of memory, often vomiting,
- emotional signs: insomnia, depression, drowsiness, frequent mood swings (most characteristic irritability).
The presence of the disease can also indicate a constant belching, dry mouth, vomiting, pain in the joints, itching (as with rashes on the skin), bloating in the abdominal cavity. Some patients also complain of joint pain.
With secondary algo-symptoms, there is an increase in body temperature, sharp pains during menstruation, which subside slightly after they end, but do not completely disappear. Obvious signs of pathology are menstrual irregularities, discharge with an unpleasant odor, prolonged and too heavy menstruation.
Complications of the disease
If you do not treat algodysmenorrhea properly, it begins to progress and is accompanied by serious complications. For example, a disease can lead to the development of psychosis. If, for a long time, there is no stopping the painful feelings during menstruation, they can seriously affect the psyche, causing prolonged depressions and more acute forms of mental disorders.
Secondary algomenorrhea is also dangerous because if the causes of the pain are not identified at the right time, then the underlying disease risks becoming incurable.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
If the above symptoms occur, you should immediately consult a doctor. Ignoring the disease can bring not only to its chronic state, but also deliver a severe blow to the health of the person as a whole.
Algomenorrhea is the most common form of the disease. Unlike algomenorrhea, which combines painful and irregular periods, it is characterized only by painful sensations during the cycle.
Usually, in order to diagnose algomenorrhea, the treatment of which differs from algomenorrhea, the gynecologist examines the patient and conducts a survey. Additionally, a woman is issued a referral for a general blood test, and an ultrasound scan of the relevant organs, laparoscopy, and hysteroscopy can also be performed. Based on the results of tests, interviews and examinations, the doctor makes an accurate conclusion.
In the diagnosis of algomenorrhea, treatment includes a number of standard procedures, but an individual approach is used for each patient. As a rule, the doctor makes the diet menu (usually women who have problems with being overweight, are more susceptible to menstrual disorders). In addition, it is very effective in algodimenorrhea to improve the psychological state of a woman. As a rule, she is recommended a full eight-hour sleep, avoid stressful situations, good rest.
Doctors advise to completely abandon alcohol, coffee and smoking. If a woman practices regular exercise, such as fitness or swimming, their frequency and intensity should be reduced.
In case of drug treatment, doctors prescribe painkillers. These are antispasmodics (no-shpa, antispasmodic, which helps with postcholecystectomy syndrome, algomenorrhea, spasms, headaches, etc.). Additionally, ibuprofen, paracetamol, antioxidants are prescribed, it is recommended to use oral contraceptives.
With the diagnosis of algomenorrhea, treatment may be more profound. So, if the disease is severe, the attending physician prescribes strong medications that must be taken during menstruation for several months in a row.
With the diagnosis of secondary algomenorrhea treatment is aimed at eliminating the underlying disease.
Algomenorrhea is a serious disease that can inflict an irreversible blow to a female body. Therefore, if the slightest symptoms appear, it is necessary to consult a doctor for an accurate diagnosis. When algomenorrhea is detected, treatment must begin immediately. In the absence of therapy, the disease progresses rapidly and it will take a lot of effort to slow down its rate at least a little.
What is algomenorrhea
Algomenorrhea disease is pain during menstruation, due to infantilism, deformation or incorrect position of the uterus, inflammatory processes in the genitals, and endometriosis.
Pain syndrome may occur 12 hours before menstruation and last 1-2 days, or throughout the menstruation. At the same time, emotional disorders may appear: depression, irritability, insomnia, decreased or increased appetite.
The vegetative component of algodysmenorrhea can be expressed in nausea, chills, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, itching, fainting, swelling, numbness of limbs and pain in joints can also occur.
Causes of Algomenorrhea
In order to identify the main causes of algodysmenorrhea, you need to know that the pathology is primary (occurring immediately upon the onset of menstruation in adolescent girls) and secondary (occurring in women due to gynecological diseases).
In any case, folk remedies for pain during menstruation will not be superfluous, but you should consult with your doctor.
In the first case, algodismenorrhea is functional in nature, and is divided in turn into 3 types:
- Psychogenic. Arises in girls prone to anxiety and hysteria, to the fear of pain.
- Essential. It is observed in cases of low pain and hypersensitivity.
- Spasmogenic. It is caused by a spasm of the uterine muscles and is based on the principle of mini-labor.
Secondary algomenorrhea requires attention, because arises from changes in the appendages or in the structure of the uterus:
- Uterine fibroids,
- Inflammatory diseases of the uterus and ovaries, especially chronic,
- Allen Masters syndrome,
- Anomalies of the development of reproductive organs.
Sometimes the cause of painful menstruation may be wearing an intrauterine device.
Treatment of primary and secondary algodysmenorrhea
In the case of treatment of primary algodysmenorrhea, it is recommended to exclude the use of alcohol, coffee, strong tea, as well as to quit smoking in the second phase of the cycle. The day before the alleged monthly is justified taking drugs that inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins.
It also makes sense to take analgesics and antispasmodics. Oral contraceptives for a period of several months are sometimes prescribed by prescription. In addition, you can take sedatives and herbal remedies for abdominal pain during menstruation in women.
Only a qualified doctor can deal with the treatment of secondary algomenorrhea, after detailed examination and finding the cause of this condition.
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