Health

Early menopause in women

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Hormonal changes in the female body can occur several times during life: during the pre-adolescent period, during adolescence, during pregnancy, during menopause.

Each time a woman experiences emotional distress, mood changes, and physiological difficulties.

The most difficult and long period is menopausal.

At this time, the body is rebuilt to the last stage of life - old age.

What is menopause and its phases

Climax - this is the period when the ovaries are first reduced, then they cease to stop producing the female hormone estrogen. This hormone is important for the preservation of the youth of the body and its normal vital activity, has a significant effect on the elasticity of tissues, takes part in the processes of digestion, blood circulation and brain activity.

Estrogen takes on direct significance in creating the conditions for fertilization. In the absence of this hormone, the ability of the female body to conceive occurs. Follicles do not mature: they are replaced by connective tissue.

Such changes do not occur immediately - the body gradually adapts to hormonal changes, and therefore this period most often has certain complications.

The climacteric period proceeds in several stages, which are usually characterized by physiological changes in the body:

  • reversal. Beginning of menopause. At this time, estrogen can still be fully developed, however, the follicles mature with some interruptions. Ovulation occurs intermittently, which causes low fertility. The duration and regularity of menstruation is disturbed, failures occur in the menstrual cycle. This condition can last more than two years,
  • applied pause. This period has its own term: it starts from the day of the last menstruation and up to 12 months, when the periods have already stopped,
  • menopause. Phase, which can be characterized as a period of complete cessation of estrogen production. During this period, the reproductive function is completely lost: you can talk about the impossibility of conception. At this stage, the body, as a rule, lacks the necessary vitamins. In this regard, there may be side effects, such as painful joints, itching and burning in the vagina due to dry skin, decreased elasticity of the skin. In addition, the period is characterized by no less unpleasant symptoms of menopause: systematic flushes, dizziness, weakness, headaches, excessive sweating,
  • postmenopause. The last period in life, which lasts after menopause. At this time, the body is already adapted to another hormonal background, the organs work under new conditions, a gradual aging occurs, skin laxity occurs due to a lack of elastin produced by estrogen.

Any phase of menopause experienced women in different ways. This is due to the characteristics of the body.

At what age comes in women

As a rule, the onset of hormonal adjustment has a beginning at the age of forty-five years and older. In recent years, the climacteric period comes earlier. However, if menopausal symptoms began before the age of forty-five, then such menopause is considered early.

Most often, early menopause occurs either because of a genetic predisposition, or because of the development of a disease.. Heredity greatly affects the onset of hormonal changes in the female body, so you should know when the menopause started in mom and grandmother.

Why is menopause 30–40 years old considered early?

Weakening of ovarian function at the age of thirty is not a normal phenomenon.. To say that this is an early menopause is impossible. Most often, such symptoms are any disease or pathological process in the body.

An examination should be tested for hormones to rule out the development of diseases.

Causes of menopause

Early menopause at forty years is valid when susceptibility at the gene level.

However, with a menopause of thirty years or even earlier, it should be assumed that there are any disorders or diseases in the body.:

  • autoimmune diseases (dysfunction of the thyroid gland, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, diseases of the adrenal cortex),
  • failure at the genetic level (defective development of the chromosome set, Turner syndrome),
  • genital tuberculosis,
  • lack of ovarian function for a number of pathological reasons,
  • rapid acceleration
  • gynecological diseases
  • uncontrolled intake of oral contraceptives or hormonal drugs
  • exhaustion amid diets
  • oncological diseases.

Surgery to remove the genital organs (uterus, ovaries) leads to the pathological onset of menopause.

Forerunners

The cause of menopause is the extinction of the reproductive function of women in the background of reducing sex hormones.

Therefore, tangible signs of the onset of menopause are:

  • disturbances of the flow of menstruation (they become poor, pass less and less often),
  • non-abundant uterine bleeding in the period between menstruation,
  • mild tides.

At the initial stages of menopause, strong psycho-emotional disorders in women are not observed. This is due to the production of estrogen in small quantities, which help maintain a sufficient amount of norepinephrine and serotonin in the body.

When the stage of estrogen hormone deficiency comes, then more pronounced menopause symptoms appear:

On the causes of unpleasant odors from the body during menopause, read here.

The most unpleasant symptoms of the coming period are hot flashes. They are characterized by increased sweating, fever, anxiety, and a strong heartbeat. Tides may occur for several years until the complete cessation of estrogen production and adaptation of the organism to new conditions..

Also read why the basal temperature changes during menopause.

What is dangerous and what complications can be

Climax at an early age has negative consequences for the body.

Its effect on the internal organs is due to the following factors.:

  • development of osteoporosis, arthrosis,
  • loss of strength of nails, hair loss,
  • dry skin and wrinkles appear.

The danger of early menopause lies in the following factors.:

  • leaching of calcium from the bone tissue, which contributes to the fragility of bones,
  • dry mucous membranes
  • violation of the cardiovascular system, high blood pressure, heart palpitations, high likelihood of developing a heart attack or stroke,
  • violation of urination (frequent urge, painful urination),
  • memory impairment, subsequently leading to Alzheimer's disease,
  • propensity for obesity,
  • reducing the efficiency of the endocrine system, leading to the development of hypothyroidism or diabetes.

Climax at an early age can provoke cancer.

In addition, according to the results of Swedish researchers, early menopause in half of the cases contributes to the reduction of a woman’s life expectancy. Therefore, you should try to delay the menopause at a later date.

How to diagnose, what to do and how to treat

If you suspect the occurrence of early menopause (reducing the duration of menstruation, interruptions in the menstrual cycle, the occurrence of unreasonable outbreaks of fever), you should immediately consult a doctor.

Diagnose early menopause is possible when obtaining the results of the following tests.:

  • blood. Eliminates the likelihood of pregnancy and thyroid dysfunction,
  • on the amount of the hormone estradiol. A decrease in this hormone indicates a decrease in the activity of the ovaries,
  • on the amount of follicle-stimulating hormone. A large number of these hormones indicates a decrease in the production of estrogen. The level of follicle-stimulating hormone above 40 mIU / mL indicates the onset of menopause.

Most often, the treatment does not bring proper results due to the patient's late visit to a doctor.

Basic and best treatments

Treatment for early menopause is aimed at restoring ovarian function and producing a sufficient amount of estrogen in the body.

A method of treating early menopause is hormone replacement therapy: taking synthetic hormonal drugs with estrogen and progesterone. To normalize the menstrual cycle, hormones stimulate the ovaries.

Hormonal drugs should be taken in strict accordance with the doctor’s prescription.

Otherwise, you can provoke irreversible processes in the body. This is due to a sufficient number of contraindications for hormones.

If ovulation occurs in the early menopause, the probability of conception is close to 60%.

Medications

Hormonal drugs, which are prescribed by the doctor at the stage of early menopause, can not only stabilize the work of the ovaries, but also have a positive effect on the skin, growth and structure of hair and nails, normalize heart activity, prevent the development of osteoporosis.

Common hormone medications to prevent menopause are:

These and other drugs are able to fill the missing amount of female sex hormones and delay the menopause.

Treatment of folk remedies

Folk remedies may further stimulate the ovaries, but are not effective in monotherapy. Rather, traditional medicine may have an effect as additional agents in hormone therapy to improve a woman’s condition and reduce menopausal symptoms.

To do this, apply:

  • sage tea,
  • Valerian tincture,
  • blackberry tea
  • tincture of flowers of hawthorn, motherwort, lugs.

These and other homemade products have soothing, tonic, anti-inflammatory agents.

Is it possible to restore menstruation with early menopause and how to wake up the ovaries

Monthly recovery with early menopause matters when a woman plans to give birth to a child, to preserve youth, skin elasticity, hair health.

The most effective methods of restoring menstruation are hormone therapy drugs, herbal remedies based on herbal ingredients. In addition, it is advisable to eat a balanced diet, reduce the consumption of tea, coffee.

The use of folk remedies can rejuvenate the body, stimulate the stable operation of all organs.

How to avoid and prevent the development of early menopause

The way to prevent premature menopause is to regularly visit specialists: a gynecologist, a general practitioner, a breast specialist. Examination will help identify the causes of estrogen decline early on.

If a woman has a genetic predisposition to the development of early menopause, then much attention should be paid to nutrition, to exclude canned food, sweets, smoked meats.. Vitamins in sufficient quantities can contribute to the normal functioning of the ovaries.

You should not expose yourself to stress and anxiety. It is necessary to give a healthy rest to the body: take time to sleep for at least eight hours.

It is impossible to avoid climax, but to delay its offensive is real if all recommendations are followed.

Thus, early menopause is not a sentence. You can normalize the activity of the ovaries with timely detection of a decrease in estrogen. But it will be more effective to prevent an early menopausal period, leading a healthy and active lifestyle.

Signs of early menopause in women

The beginning of menopause in each woman comes individually and to determine the exact time for this is simply impossible. If the first signs of early menopause become apparent at thirty years, then the reasons for such hormonal changes should be urgently sought, because they often indicate the presence of pathology. Early menopause is diagnosed in one of hundreds of cases.

Under normal conditions, menopause does not manifest itself before 45 years, any manifestations of menopausal symptoms at a younger age are considered premature, and early menopause at 30, this is generally a serious pathology, because the earlier the diseases that caused it appear, the more difficult the cure will be.

In the reproductive process in the female body, not only the reproductive system is involved, a special role is also played by the brain, in the pituitary gland of which gonadotropic hormones are released, released by releasing factors produced by the hypothalamus. Any negative impact on the links of this chain can cause the appearance of early menopause in women 40 years old or even younger.

Consider the main factors that cause menopause in 36 years and earlier, unfortunately, most often the effect is directly on the ovaries, and in this case it is rather difficult to restore their function:

  1. Genetic mutation. In this case, it is rather difficult to fight early menopause, because hormonal disorders are embedded in the genes and are inherited from grandmother to mother, and from her to daughter. Even to become pregnant such women is very difficult, because their ovaries are poorly amenable to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone, which leads to the cessation of ovulation.
  2. Hereditary diseases very often cause an early onset of menopause, additionally accompanied by other symptoms. Galactosemia can be a prime example. In this disease, not only can premenopause begin, but also problems arise with the brain, liver and eyesight. Such a disease as blepharophimosis threatens with both eye damage and the symptoms of early menopause in women begin.
  3. Climax at an early age may begin due to undergoing female pelvic surgeryincluding uterus, tubes and ovaries. When operating on a cyst that forms on the ovary, functional tissue with follicles may be damaged, and if uterine fibroids are excised, there is a risk of adhesive disease that can start in the sex glands. To begin the process of early menopause in women 30 years old can be microbial inflammation after surgery.
  4. Radiation therapy, which is used to treat malignant neoplasms, also triggers early menopause in women, especially if uterine cancer or its neighboring organs were affected by the rays, and the total radiation dose was 6 Gray. Under these conditions, recovery of ovarian function will not be possible. Such a disappointing outcome can be predicted for women who have experienced accidents at nuclear power plants and industries. Whether it is possible to stop the onset of menopause when receiving less exposure depends on the age at which the patient was exposed to it, on the duration of exposure and other criteria.
  5. Chemotherapy, aimed at combating cancer in any of the organs, can cause an early menopause, the treatment of which will be difficult, because both cancer cells and follicle cells are destroyed by chemotherapy.
  6. Diseases of autoimmune nature (Addison's disease, diabetes, hypothyroidism). With such diseases, the human body inadequately perceives its own cells, mistakenly considering them to be foreign. Any of these diseases are accompanied by symptoms of early menopause in women, when inflammation occurs in the sex glands and the follicles heal.
  7. Unfortunately, in the overwhelming majority of cases it is not possible to find out why an early menopause occurs. His reasons can be called and viral infection by a woman and smoking, and the use of potent drugs.

How is manifested early menopause and its consequences

With early menopause, the symptoms do not differ much from those accompanying menopause at 44 years. The most serious of them concern, of course, the ability to conceive and bear healthy offspring:

  • the menstrual cycle is disturbed, the intervals between menstruation are lengthened, the amount of discharge decreases and with time their complete cessation occurs,
  • sterility
  • signs of lack of estrogen.

So that you know how to recognize the onset of menopause in 40 years and earlier, we give the phased symptoms of this condition.

Learning to recognize premature menopause

The duration of the initial stage of menopause is about two to four years, at this time the following symptoms appear:

  • irregular periods. Between menstruation there can be a break in a couple of months, while ovulation does not occur in every cycle. Spotting can appear on any day of the cycle and be too abundant. As a result, they disappear completely,
  • frequent flushes with active perspiration. Сильно ощущаются эти симптомы для женщин, у которых началась менопауза до 35 лет. In the area of ​​the face, neck and chest there is a feeling of heat, the skin turns red and the heartbeat quickens. How long the tide lasts depends on the general condition of the patient, on average from 2 to 5 minutes. At night, the intensity of tides increases, so there are problems with sleep. After 40, uncomfortable clothes, hot weather and even spicy food can provoke an attack.
  • heightened emotionality. Since sex hormones, in particular estrogens, are ceased to be produced, the level of serotonin and norepinephrine decreases, they are responsible for the good mood and normal psycho-emotional state of the fair sex. As a result, early menopause in women is accompanied by attacks of unwarranted aggression, eternal discontent, tearfulness and depression,
  • disturbed sleep. As sex hormones stop being produced in the right amount, the concentration of melatonin decreases. It depends on him how much sleep lasts, with a lack of melatonin, dreams are superficial, and the night rest is restless,
  • the danger of early menopause lies in uncontrolled weight gain. This is how the body reacts to the fact that sex hormones are no longer produced. An additional factor in weight gain is insufficient activity and poor nutrition of a woman. As a result, adipose tissue exerts a strong load on the cardiovascular and endocrine systems.

The earliest age of menopause is somewhere in 30 years, so the second stage of menopause in this case occurs, somewhere in 35 years, 4-5 years after the last menstrual period.

Symptoms of the second stage complement the previous ones:

  • aging skin. For young girls, this is probably the worst symptom. The reason for this is all the same hormones, or rather their lack of concentration. Collagen production decreases, skin loses its elasticity, becomes dry and dehydrated, wrinkles appear. The same effect is on the hair and nails. They become more fragile and thin
  • for intimate life the most problematic consequences of early menopause - it is drying of the vaginal mucosa. This causes itching and redness, as well as injuries during intercourse, which become the best gateway for infection in the body.
  • problem urination. The normal activity of the sphincter of the bladder is directly dependent on the level of estrogen, the lack of this hormone leads to a decrease in elasticity and sagging of the walls of this organ. As a result, toilet trips increase, urinary system infections, cystitis, incontinence, etc. may occur.

What causes premature menopause?

To understand the danger of early menopause, you need to study its effects, which are usually attributed to the third stage of this state:

  • osteoporosis. With a decrease in estrogen, the calcium content in the bones decreases significantly, they become fragile, which increases the risk of fractures,
  • atherosclerosis. In the blood, cholesterol increases, this process is associated with the same estrogen deficiency. In time, cholesterol plaques cause disturbances in the cardiovascular system and can cause diabetes mellitus to begin at the age of 38, or even earlier,
  • hypertension. Poor blood circulation, weak vascular walls, cholesterol plaques, all this can make the increase in pressure pathological. This process is closely associated with an increase in the risk of infarction, stroke and non-healing fractures.

Another danger of menopause in women over 40 is the development of oncological formations.

Prevention of early menopause reduces the likelihood of the formation of cancerous tumors, and not only in the reproductive system.

Early menopause treatment

Most women who are faced with this problem are not so much interested in the question of why this happened, how many are trying to find out what to do during an early climax and what hormonal preparations to take.

It is important not to forget that only a doctor should deal with the treatment of early menopause in women, independent actions can only harm and not cure the patient. The forerunner of premature menopause may be the absence of menstruation for three cycles, in order to confirm this verdict or find out what this violation is connected with, it is necessary to pass tests for hormones. A sign of attenuation of the reproductive function is an increase in FSH, a decrease in estrogen and progestins.

If the tests confirmed the onset of early menopause, then what to do in such a situation, whether this process can somehow slow down and whether it is to be prevented, is also determined solely by your treating gynecologist.

In a running stage, in the absence of menstruation, discussions on the topic “how to stop early menopause” are not relevant, in this case, you can only alleviate the symptoms, but how to prevent early menopause with irregular periods - this is what you should talk with your doctor at the reception.

The most effective drugs for hormone replacement therapy are Femoston, Divitren, Divigel, Evian, Cyclo-Proginova. All of them include artificial hormones that help the body cope with the new status.

If a woman in forty-five to fifty years has contraindications for hormonal drugs, they can be replaced by analogues on a natural basis (Klimaksan, Klimadinon Uno, Familywell, Estrovel). To reduce dryness in the vagina, you can apply Klimaru, Ovestin and Divigel.

In general, premature menopause is not a fatal diagnosis and, with the current level of medicine, it can be tolerated with minimal discomfort, and you should remember about proper nutrition, exercise and regular intimate life.

Definition

I would like to make a small digression. Modern terminology implies the rejection of the term early menopause or early menopause. Previously, this term was characterized by menopause, up to 50 years. Then this term was preserved for women in the age range from 40 to 50 years. Earlier onset of menopause - before age 40 - was called premature menopause.

In recent years, the world community of gynecologists agreed to call the onset of actual menopause or cessation of menstruation against the background of ovarian depletion - premature ovarian depletion or PIA. That is what should be called early menopause in women younger than 40 years.

Early menopause with the course and development is no different from timely, coming in 50-55 years. To understand the essence, consider the mechanism of menopause a little more.

The entire stock of eggs is laid by the future woman in the period of her intrauterine life. Nature is generous - several million of rudimentary follicles or oocytes are laid in the ovaries of the female fetus.

Unfortunately, the ovaries are a very delicate and sensitive tissue, so under the influence of various internal and external factors, most of the eggs will die before birth, and even the lion's share - before puberty.

So, by the time of the formation of sexual function, the girl in the ovaries has a supply of several thousand eggs - this is the same ovarian reserve of the ovary, which doctors are talking about so much now. This is a potential stock of ovulation and menstruation for the rest of your life. It is individual for each woman, but approximately calculated for a period of about 35-40 years - from the moment of puberty to the last menstruation of 50-55 years.

With the depletion of ovarian reserve is associated with the cessation of ovulation, and the lack of ovulation - decreases the release of female sex hormones - primarily estrogen, and to a lesser extent - progesterone. Estrogen deficiency and causes all sorts of unpleasant and quality of life-disturbing symptoms - hot flashes, sweating, mood swings, sexual dysfunction, and much more.

Every woman who is faced with the problem of premature ovarian depletion is interested in the question: “Why me? Why did this happen to me? ”As we have already understood, early menopause is associated with the exhaustion of a woman’s ovarian reserve. The causes of early menopause are not known for certain, but there are very significant factors in this condition:

Heredity. The first question that a patient with suspected early ovarian depletion should find out is how many years her menstruation ended with her grandmother, mother, aunt, elder sister. Very often, problems with PIA are monitored from generation to generation, so modern women can attend to this issue in time and take necessary measures to prevent this condition in time.

Life story. This refers to diseases, conditions, taking certain groups of drugs, especially lifestyle. Severe viral diseases (chickenpox, rubella, parotitis, severe flu), chronic intoxication (lead, mercury, pesticide), taking "heavy" drugs (anti-tuberculosis drugs, chemotherapy drugs, long-term courses of antiviral drugs), radiation therapy of cancer tumors and other factors. The earliest age of such a "menopause" is observed in adolescent girls against the background of malignant blood diseases, ovaries, bones against the background of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Features obstetric history. The absence or a small number of births, short periods or complete failure of breastfeeding does not allow the ovaries to relax from the monthly work and maintain their ovarian reserve.

Features gynecological history. Inflammatory diseases of the pelvis (salpingitis, salpingoophoritis), apoplexy or ovarian ruptures do not add to their health. Also destructive for ovarian reserve operations on the ovaries and appendages of the uterus, pronounced varicose veins of the pelvis.

A history of ovarian stimulation procedures and IVF programs. The fact is that to obtain a single large number of oocytes for artificial insemination, the ovary is forced to perform the annual rate of ovulation in one cycle. From such overloads, the ovarian reserve is depleted many times faster than in women who did not perform IVF and other reproductive interventions.

Features of contraception. Beneficial effect on the ovarian reserve and the age of menopause is affected by taking combined oral contraceptives or COC. Their contraceptive action is based on blocking ovulation. While a woman takes birth control pills, her ovaries rest and retain their supply of eggs. True, long-term (more than 8 years in a row) administration of COCs faces another problem - the syndrome of resistant or "lazy" ovaries, so everything is good in moderation.

The presence of autoimmune diseases. This is a broad group of diseases in which the human body for unexplained reasons begins to produce antibodies or "killer cells" to its own cells and tissues, taking them for dangerous and harmful. The most frequently affected in such diseases are joints, kidneys, blood vessels, heart, lungs, thyroid gland, but in some cases the tissues of the ovaries and uterus fall under the crossfire.

Prenatal life of the patient. Let it sound fantastic, but a huge contribution to the function of the ovaries and their stock makes a period of intrauterine life. After all, it is during this period that the future follicles of the girl are laid. Viral diseases, intoxication, poor lifestyle of the mother, taking illegal drugs, alcohol, drugs of a pregnant woman can cause irreparable damage to the health of her daughter. So prevention of early menopause should be carried out before the birth of a woman.

Now we will talk in detail about how to recognize early menopause in time. The sooner the diagnosis is determined - the premature depletion of ovarian function, the faster the correct treatment will be initiated - the better the prognosis for such patients.

The most important external manifestation of ovarian function is the menstrual cycle. The first symptoms of problems become significant changes in the nature of menstruation - they can become more scarce, and sometimes vice versa - more abundant. The length of the cycle also changes - the cycle can become unnecessarily short for me 21 days, and then there are long delays and periods of their complete absence.

Reproductive dysfunction is another important criterion for the diagnosis of ovarian dysfunction in women over 35 years old. Many patients in 25-30 years are still determined to become mothers - someone again, and someone for the first time. Infertility in the absence of other objective reasons - for example, obstruction of pipes or other gross hormonal disorders (problems with the thyroid gland, polycystic ovarian disease, etc.) - is a reason to think about PIA.

Any external manifestations of menopause in a young woman - hot flashes, feeling of heat, dry genital organs, lack of libido - a reason to assess the risk of PIA. Fortunately, these symptoms are not always associated with early menopause. Often, flushing and sweating can be a manifestation of problems with the thyroid gland, and problems with the sexual plan are associated with psychosomatics or inflammatory diseases of the genital sphere.

The most valuable criterion for assessing the risks of early ovarian depletion may be a blood test for sex hormones - FSH, LH, estradiol, prolactin, progesterone. It is very diagnostically valuable antimullers hormone or AMH - this is a real breakthrough in laboratory diagnostics.

This hormone indirectly shows ovarian reserve in women of different ages. There are whole tables to predict the age of menopause, based on the indicators of this hormone in a particular patient, as well as the potential for the onset of pregnancy - both in the natural cycle and IVF programs.

Effects

It is important to understand that the consequences of early menopause are much more serious than people far from medical science imagine. The fact is that female sex hormones are involved not only in the sexual and reproductive life of a woman, but also in many completely different areas of women's health.

That is why the lack of estrogen and PIA negatively affect women's health in general. The catch is that when this happens in 50-55 years, the body is potentially ready for various "malfunctions", another thing, when a hormonal catastrophe occurs in 35-45 years.

So, we list the most common conditions and diseases that can be affected by premature depletion of ovarian function.

The mental state of the patient. Women are always very sensitive to the problems in their health "as a woman", so the early menopause for the majority becomes just a huge stressful situation.

There are a variety of depression, neurosis, apathy, panic attacks. Depressive disorders and symptoms of early menopause in women are aggravated: hot flashes, sweating, fluctuations in body weight, abnormal heart function, and blood pressure spikes. There are numerous studies showing that women with PIA and early menopause develop Alzheimer's disease and senile memory disorders much more often.

Violations of sexual health. No one would argue that a woman at 40 is still active, young, and promising. Many at this age marry and give birth to children, live sexually, try something new in the sexual arena.

Estrogen deficiency significantly affects the quality of sex life. The first problem is the lack of sexual desire, libido. It is regulated at the level of the brain - the effect of estrogen spreads even there. The second problem is the disruption of the genital organs, since estrogens directly affect the function of the vagina, glands of the vestibule of the vagina, and the external genital organs.

Estrogen deficiency causes the so-called atrophic vulvovaginitis - dryness, burning, pain in the vagina with or without intercourse. This is due to the thinning of the mucous membranes and skin of the genital organs - they become atrophic, vulnerable, bleed easily and are injured.

Violations of the cardiovascular system. Many patients, previously healthy, with the onset of menopause begin to suffer from various diseases of the heart and blood vessels - hypertension, various disorders of the heart, angina.

Osteoporosis is a later but no less formidable complication of menopause. Osteoporosis is a violation of bone mineralization. The fact is that estrogens in the female body directly affect the flow of calcium into the bone tissue - the bones become strong, strong.

But with a lack of estrogen, even with a normal level of calcium and vitamin D, the process of formation of bone tissue is disturbed - osteoporosis occurs. In this disease, the bones become more loose, softer. This leads not only to discomfort and pain in the bones, but also to a significant increase in the risk of fractures.

Pregnancy

Very many patients who have not yet completed or have not fully completed their reproductive function are concerned about the prognosis regarding pregnancy. Unfortunately, there is nothing reassuring to say here.

Natural pregnancy in the normal cycle against the background of PIA is very, very unlikely. The chances of success in IVF programs are also extremely small. Яичник устал, поэтому «стегать» его препаратами гормонами бесполезно – качественных яйцеклеток, пригодных к оплодотворению, он все равно не выдаст.

However, do not put an end to motherhood. Take out and give birth to a child is possible. To this end, modern reproductive technologies offer IVF programs with a donor egg - it can be either a cell from a bank or a collected egg from close relatives - mothers, sisters, nieces.

Another medical breakthrough, vitrification of the ovary, which we will go further, can also give good results.

Prevention

There are some patterns that can affect women's health:

  • Adequate reproductive function - timely pregnancy and childbirth. It is good if the family decides on two, three or even more children. A healthy pregnancy and an adequate (about a year) breastfeeding period are able to significantly maintain the ovarian reserve.
  • Preventing abortion - abortion not only causes many ethical debates, but is also a great stress for hormones and the ovaries.
  • Adequate contraception. Many patients are afraid and deny taking hormonal contraceptives - and it is in vain. A correct contraceptive drug chosen by a competent doctor not only reliably protects against unwanted pregnancy, but also maintains an ovarian reserve for the future.
  • Prevention of ovarian disease - especially inflammatory. To do this, you must carefully treat your women's health, do not overcool, dress according to the season, take care of the pelvic area and lower back. But the main thing is to avoid promiscuous sex and infection with sexually transmitted infections - gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia and many others.

Of course, in the presence of significant risk factors and unconditional causes of PIA, it is difficult to somehow influence the development of early menopause. For example, it is difficult to somehow prevent menopause in a woman after irradiation of the ovaries on the background of cancer tumors or hereditary early menopause.

But many now wonder, scientists and doctors have developed a new technology for such patients. This technology is called ovarian vitrification. The technique consists in collecting healthy ovarian tissue and freezing it in a liquid nitrogen environment.

For example, a teenage girl has a malignant disease of the ovaries or blood, and massive radiation and chemotherapy are planned, after which the likelihood of ovarian tissue death is high.

Before these procedures, laparoscopic collection of ovarian tissue and their preservation occurs. These fabrics will be stored for several years and even a decade in a cryobank, waiting in the wings. After the girl has recovered or, if necessary, a woman with PIA may have ovarian tissue simply inserted into the abdominal cavity, where they will take root and perform their function perfectly. These are modern technologies.

About hormonal and non-hormonal methods of correction of early menopause, or more correctly, premature depletion of the ovaries, you can read here.

Causes of early menopause

The cause of early menopause may be a genetic predisposition. In such cases, gene mutations are inherited from mother to daughter. Among the causes of early menopause also note the following factors:

  • surgery on the organs of the female urogenital system,
  • radiation or chemotherapy for cancer,
  • excessive drinking,
  • smoking,
  • condition of chronic stress or short-term, but intense nervous tension,
  • autoimmune pathologies,
  • endocrine diseases.

In many cases, to establish the cause of the onset of early menopause is not possible. Some doctors believe that the infection that was once carried can be a provoking factor. There is also a relationship between the lack of a woman’s children and the early cessation of reproductive ability. The causes of early menopause in women are very different, but they all lead to a decrease in the production of female sex hormones and the loss of the possibility of conception.

Interesting fact! The case of the earliest menopause in the world gynecological practice was recorded in a thirteen-year-old girl.

Clinical picture

Signs of early menopause are mainly the result of an imbalance of hormones. The production of female germ cells - the eggs - is carried out by the ovaries. They, as well as the pituitary and adrenal glands, produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. With age or, as in cases with early menopause, under the influence of certain provoking factors, the synthesis of sex hormones is reduced.

In healthy women experiencing menopausal changes after the age of 45 years, this happens gradually. In the overwhelming majority of cases of early menopause, estrogen synthesis decreases quite sharply. Therefore, the manifestations of such a state are quite pronounced.

The symptoms of early menopause in women are similar to the manifestations of timely menopause. Climax at an early age is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • disruptions in the frequency of menstruation,
  • tides
  • psychoemotional deviations,
  • sleep disorders
  • weight gain
  • skin aging,
  • dryness and soreness in the vagina,
  • difficulty bladder emptying.

Early menopause in women can manifest with one, several, or all of these symptoms. One can conditionally distinguish three stages in the development of a state. The first symptoms usually appear within two to four years. Five or six years after the start of a decline in reproductive function, signs of the final menopause are observed. After a year has passed since the last regul, it can be considered as having come. The postmenopausal stage begins with irreversible changes in the functions of the female genital organs.

Normal menstrual cycle and menopausal cycle changes

Hormonal changes in the body are called the menstrual cycle that are repeated after certain periods of time. Normally, the menstrual cycle ranges from 20 to 38 days. Its coordination is performed by the pituitary gland, and is controlled by the hypothalamus. During one period of the cycle, natural hormonal changes occur.

In the first phase of the cycle, the follicle-stimulating hormone level prevails, at this time the egg cell matures and passes through the tube into the uterus. All the time, while the egg matures, the uterus prepares for fertilization, building up the procedural layer. If fertilization in the current cycle did not occur, the uterus rejects the expanded functional layer together with the unfertilized egg cell. Rejection is accompanied by bleeding, which marks the beginning of a new cycle.

This feature characterizes the initial stage of early menopause in women: cycle fails begin. The interval between the regulations varies, it may become shorter or longer. The second option is found in the vast majority of cases. The abundance of secretions is also changing, each woman has this manifestation individually. Allocations can become scarce, and can, on the contrary, be plentiful. There may be pain during menstruation, even if a woman has never had dysmenorrhea.

Tides during early menopause in women are considered the most frequent and informative signs of hormonal changes that have begun. A woman feels a sudden heat build up in the upper part of the body, which is most often accompanied by profuse sweating. With a strong intensity of the tide, there may even be a loss of consciousness for a short time. Some ladies say that sweat literally pours hail, so you want to change clothes.

The duration of this state in each case is individual, usually the tide lasts from one to five minutes. Most often, the tide is accompanied by neurological symptoms: fear, anxiety, unreasonable anxiety. Interruptions or increases in heart rate are also noted.

Neurological symptoms

Neurological manifestations in early menopause are the result of changes in hormonal levels. At the initial stage, estrogen in the body is sufficient and there is no serious hormonal imbalance yet. Therefore, the psycho-emotional background does not undergo significant changes. As ovarian function decreases, estrogen deficiency becomes more and more significant, and changes in the woman's psycho-emotional state are becoming more pronounced. Most often, women complain of fatigue without changes in physical or mental stress, unreasonable anxiety and an overly acute reaction to events or words.

Sleep disorders

The lack of a good night's rest is also a manifestation of changes in hormonal levels. Reducing the production of estrogen and progesterone leads to a decrease in the level of the hormone melatonin, which is responsible for the process of falling asleep, the duration and quality of sleep. The absence of a full night's sleep, if it lasts a long period, may adversely affect the psycho-emotional state and the health of the woman. If insomnia lasts more than a week, you need to contact a neurologist.

Weight gain

At the age of 30-35 years begins a slowdown in metabolism and physiological decline in the physical capabilities of the body. If at this age a woman begins to change hormonal due to menopause, weight gain becomes even more likely. Fat cells can synthesize estrogen, so the body, trying to fill the lack of this hormone by all available means, can begin to store fatty tissue. The male hormone androgen, the level of which rises during menopause, can cause an increase in the fat layer in the abdomen.

The role of estrogen in maintaining women's health

Estrogens not only retain shine in the eyes and maintain an interest in life in all its manifestations, but also directly affect its duration. After menopause, when the production of sex hormones stops, a woman can become a victim of such dangerous diseases as atherosclerosis, stroke, heart attack, osteoporosis. Until climacteric changes, nature protects the female body and prevents the development of many diseases.

What is dangerous menopause up to 40 years

Did you know that estrogens play an important protective role for the central nervous system? Female hormones increase the survival of brain and CNS cells in case of oxygen deficiency and intoxication. Estrogens are actively involved in maintaining intellectual abilities, reduce the effects of depression and prevent the development of mental disorders. That is why, against the background of menopause, many women suffer from mood swings, feel forgotten and powerless before age changes.

Experts have concluded that estrogen reduces the accumulation of substances that provoke the development of senile dementia. Sex hormones can even slow down the aging process. They reduce the effects of cell oxidation during the active formation of free radicals.

Due to the reduction of estrogen, characteristic changes occur in the brain, the number of neurons decreases, and degradation of the CNS cells occurs. Clinically, this manifests itself in the form of behavioral changes, the emergence of psychological disorders, decreased attention, memory, cognitive functions, and an increased risk of mortality from osteoporosis, related fractures and acute disorders of the heart and blood vessels.

Data on the effects of estrogen on the female body are confirmed by numerous clinical trials of European and Russian scientists. You can get to know them yourself, using the possibilities of the Internet. I want women to finally realize the role of estrogen for maintaining their mental and physical health. This is especially important for those who suffer from symptoms of early menopause. You do not have to put up with your condition and abandon literally life-saving hormone replacement therapy.

Possible complications

Without treatment, the symptoms of early menopause will increase, increasing the risk of complications:

  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding,
  • irreversible infertility
  • osteoporosis with a tendency to fracture and disability,
  • atherosclerosis with a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, including the most dangerous of them - stroke and myocardial infarction,
  • autoimmune diseases and pathologies of the endocrine glands,
  • diabetes,
  • malignant and benign tumors of the uterus, ovaries, mammary glands.

Symptoms and signs of early menopause

Women often do not have enough time for their own health. Many ignore the symptoms of early menopause and remain indifferent to their condition. This leads to a late start of treatment.

If the symptoms of menopause appear in women under 40 years old, then it is considered early. But amenorrhea (lack of menstruation) may be associated with the intake of certain drugs, injuries, operations, and in this case, the changes that have occurred are reversible. Experts know cases of extinction of the functions of the ovaries and women who are just over 30 years old.

The main signs of early menopause are considered to be the following:

  • lengthening the period between menstruation,
  • changes in the nature of the discharge - they can become abundant or, conversely, scarce,
  • periods of prolonged absence of menstruation,
  • hot flashes, sensation of heat and flushing of the face appear,
  • sweating increases,
  • dyspnea may occur on the background of moderate physical activity,
  • there are interruptions in the work of the heart, often there are pains of a stabbing character in the chest,
  • blood pressure becomes unstable,
  • vaginal dryness occurs, intimate contacts without lubrication can be painful and unpleasant,
  • fat metabolism changes, the rate of gaining extra pounds increases.
  • there are characteristic changes in the psyche: a woman becomes whiny, irritable, falls asleep badly at night, cannot perform her usual housework without feeling tired and weak, stops remembering a large amount of new information, loses the ability to develop intellectual activity.

Early menopause in women under 40 years of age in most cases leads to premature aging of the skin. It becomes dry and wrinkled, increases fragility of hair and nails. Women are very hard to perceive such changes in their appearance. This can contribute to the development of depression and aggravate the course of existing mental illnesses.

Symptoms of early menopause in women - this is an urgent reason to contact a gynecologist. The doctor will definitely conduct a hormonal diagnosis, assess the condition of the ovaries and help as soon as possible to minimize the effect of estrogen deficiency on the female body. And most importantly - the gynecologist will determine the causes of its development, which will eliminate the influence of predisposing factors on the reproductive system.

In this video, experts in understandable language talk about the process of hormonal regulation in the female body, the causes, signs of early menopause and how to treat the disease.

Causes of early menopause

The appearance of menopause at an early age of 40, and even more so at 30, cannot be considered the norm. The disease develops on the background of a decrease or complete cessation of the production of estrogen and other sex hormones. Experts associate the symptoms of early menopause with various genetic abnormalities.

Scientists have long identified genes that can disrupt and prematurely stop ovarian function or reduce their sensitivity to the production of follicle-stimulating hormone. Genetic abnormalities can also trigger the development of ovarian depletion syndrome. It is against this background that hormonal activity is reduced in women to 40 years.

Other causes of early menopause:

  • ovarian neoplasms damaging healthy follicular cells,
  • exposure to radiation therapy
  • treatment of cancer processes using chemotherapeutic drugs that inhibit ovarian function,
  • surgical interventions on the genitals, including the removal of the ovaries when they are damaged by the tumor process,
  • endometriosis, inflammation of the appendages, cystic changes in the ovaries,
  • autoimmune diseases that can lead to the replacement of follicular tissue connective.

To establish the exact causes of early menopause, a comprehensive survey is required. The main diagnostic method are hormone tests. A woman with a menstruation delay of several months and a negative pregnancy test is prescribed laboratory diagnostics.

Hormonal studies

Confirmation of early menopause is the increase in gonadotropins, and in particular - follicle-stimulating hormone against the background of a sharp decline in estradiol. These changes indirectly confirm the premature depletion of the follicular apparatus and the risk of an irreversible cessation of ovarian function.

Laboratory diagnostics also includes the determination of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism of an autoimmune nature is found in many women with symptoms of early menopause. Some patients are diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency.

If the doctor is negligent in laboratory diagnostics, does not prescribe the necessary blood tests, immediately change a specialist to a more qualified and experienced one.Early menopause should not begin to heal without obtaining the results of hormonal studies.

Other diagnostic methods

To assess the size and structure of the genitals, transvaginal ultrasound is performed. With early menopause and ovarian depletion syndrome, the uterus will be reduced in size, the doctor can determine the indirect signs of genital infantilism. The ovaries should also be reduced, without visualizing the follicles and the corpus luteum. Depending on the period of the ultrasound, a specialist can reveal the complete replacement of the cortical layer of the ovaries with connective tissue. Conducting histological examination allows to accurately determine the absence of follicles.

We must not forget that a woman with signs of early menopause is at risk for the development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction. It is necessary to periodically determine the level of cholesterol, to prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis, the growth of cancers of the mammary glands and other organs.

Principles of treatment

The treatment of early menopause is selected taking into account the age of the woman and her desire to get pregnant. Premature extinction of reproductive possibilities does not exclude the possibility of conception. Depending on the underlying disease and the general state of health, patients are prescribed estrogens, progestogens, combined agents, including androgens and progestins.

Hormone replacement therapy has many pitfalls and nuances that need to be considered when choosing a treatment regimen for a particular woman. In no case do not assign hormones yourself - this difficult task is only possible for a qualified specialist.

Many women have too high hopes for phytoestrogens. But such drugs do not give an instant effect and can be used as an adjunct to the main treatment. Hormone replacement therapy has been used for many years.

Specialists prescribe drugs that have a low concentration, but at the same time are highly effective and help women maintain a good quality of life into old age. Phytoestrogens are less effective, as confirmed by reviews of women with early menopause and menopause, which began in normal periods.

Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy procedures have a positive effect on general health and psyche in women with signs of early menopause. Specialists actively prescribe water procedures: radon, carbonic, iodide-bromine baths, Charcot's douche. Be sure to enroll in the pool, at least several times a week to swim. Water perfectly affects the mental state and internal processes.

If you have never played sports before, take time for easy gymnastics or yoga. Training, even rare, helps to maintain physical fitness, psycho-emotional balance, gives a feeling of lightness and inner harmony. But it is better to play sports 1-2 times a week, remembering the sense of proportion. Excessive physical activity will not heal, but only deplete the body.

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Early menopause in women 30 years

The onset of the hormonal adjustment process of a woman’s body is inevitable, however, the time of its development can vary widely. The first stage of this physiological process is the termination of the childbearing function, after which the stage of the interruption of the menstrual cycle begins. This variant of the course is called by experts as the "menopausal period." The average age at which the onset of menopause is physiological is in the range of 50-55 years, and at the same time, in the practice of gynecologists there are cases of the onset of menopause at 30 years. The overwhelming majority of such situations constitute a pathological menopause, although physiological extinction of the reproductive function of the female body at the age of 30 years can also be observed. The early onset of menopause in this situation is most often triggered by a powerful acute stress factor.

The premenopausal period is a stage between the cessation of childbearing, but the full preservation of the regularity and duration of the menstrual cycle. At this stage, the pathological extinction of the hormone-producing functions of the ovaries is noted and the average duration of this period is one and a half years. It should be noted that the reproductive function with an early menopause at the age of 30 years is extinguished unevenly, therefore the possibility of conceiving a child is not excluded. Women who are not planning a pregnancy should continue to receive contraceptives during this period.

After an average of one and a half years after the onset of early menopause in women aged 30, there is an increase in the intervals between menstruations, and also reduces the profusion of menstrual flow. This condition is the main clinical criterion that allows gynecologists to verify the preliminary diagnosis of "early menopause." In some cases, the duration of the onset of early menopause at 30 years can reach five years. The pathogenetic mechanisms of early menopause development at the age of 30 are a sharp and pronounced decrease in the production of estrogen and progesterone simultaneously with an increase in the activity of follicle-stimulating hormone production.

In the case when the production of male hormones decreases with less intensity than estrogen and progesterone, the conditions for the development of hyperandrogenism are created, the main clinical manifestation of which is a progressive increase in body weight. The onset of menopause with early menopause at 30 years is due to increased production of follicle-stimulating hormone, so this period has an increased risk of osteoporosis, an acquired form of diabetes, and obesity.

With the onset of postmenopausal periods with an early menopause at 30 years, an increased concentration in the blood and urine of follicle-stimulating hormone may also be observed, and at the same time, the main clinical manifestations of menopause are completely absent. With the onset of early menopause at 30 years of age, a woman should first of all assume his pathological origin. The clinical picture of early menopause in this situation is the appearance of a gratuitous headache of an intense nature, chills and dizziness, as well as various psycho-emotional disorders in the form of irritability, frequent mood swings, progressive fatigue and decreased sexual desire.

Early menopause in women 40 years

In the case when the hormone-producing function of the ovaries is turned off at the age of 40 years, experts establish the conclusion “premature ovarian failure,” which is nothing more than an early menopause. The negative sides of this situation are the complete loss of the woman’s reproductive function at the age of forty, as well as a more intensive increase in the aging processes of various structures of the female body. For example, women suffering from early menopause at the age of 40 years, make up the risk category for the development of cardiovascular diseases, fractures and early onset of cognitive-mental disorders. With the onset of early menopause in women over 40, the risk of developing neurological pathologies such as parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease increases significantly.

A trigger for the development of early menopause in women aged 40 years can be various factors, but in most situations there is a genetic determination. It should be borne in mind that the early onset of this state is passed on from generation to generation and it is almost impossible to postpone the onset of this process, according to most experts. Another reason for which it becomes possible early onset of menopause at the age of 40 years, are various kinds of autoimmune disorders. A separate category of patients suffering from the onset of menopause at the age of 40 years are women, who even after a lengthy examination could not determine the cause of the development of this condition.

According to recent scientific studies, the regular influence of stressful psycho-emotional factors, as well as prolonged smoking, contribute to the onset of early menopause at the age of 40 years. In the case of anamnestic data on the use of any operational aid in relation to the pelvic organs in a woman, it is possible to associate the early onset of menopause with a decrease in ovarian reserve.

An interesting fact is that women living on the territory of Asian countries are clinically much easier to experience the onset of menopause, even if it develops at the age of 40 years. This is due to the lack of so-called "tides during menopause", which is explained by the scientists peculiarities of nutrition in the region. So, during the onset of early menopause, every woman should exercise careful control over weight. While maintaining a constant body weight and reducing body fat, the incidence of hot flashes decreases. Thus, the prevention of early menopause is to rationalize the eating behavior of young women, implying the use of extremely low-calorie foods that prolong reproductive age. Young women should spend enough time on a night's sleep, since healthy sleep is key to reducing the risk of developing early menopause.

Prevention of early menopause among women of 40 years also includes the wearing of underwear made exclusively from natural fabrics that have good thermal conductivity.

Preparations for early menopause

Pharmacological companies all over the world are engaged in the development of highly effective medicines that are beneficial for the relief of the clinical manifestations of early menopause. For example, Divin is an anti-menopausal drug whose active ingredient is estrogen and progesterone. Pharmacological activity of the drug is to reduce the number of tide episodes, prevent osteoporosis and atherosclerotic changes in the vascular bed. As with any drug that falls under the category of hormone replacement therapy, Divine should be taken systematically over the course of the 21st day, followed by a seven-day break.

Femoston with early menopause is widely used due to the ability to effectively arrest psycho-emotional and other clinical manifestations in women. The composition of this drug is represented by estradiol and progesterone. As an additional pharmacological effect from the use of Femoston during the early menopause, a decrease in the cholesterol concentration in the blood of patients should be noted. Since the group of women suffering from early menopause has increased vigilance regarding the development of endometrial hyperplasia, progesterone is included in Femoston, which prevents the formation of this pathological process that is dangerous for women's health. Depending on the patient's age and body weight, gynecologists recommend using two dosages of Femoston 1/10 and 2/10. Features of Femoston do not differ from the use of other hormone replacement therapy drugs.

Ovestin with early menopause recently used less frequently due to the fact that it consists exclusively of estriol. Among the positive pharmacological effects of Ovestin, it should be noted that there is a decrease in the occurrence of episodes of hot flashes, prevention of vaginal dryness, and elimination of dysfunction of the organs of the genitourinary system. Ovestin is used for early menopause in various pharmacological forms (cream, suppositories and tablets). The negative side of the use of Ovestin is the need for daily use of up to four tablets with a gradual decrease in dosage. In order to eliminate such an unpleasant symptom of early menopause as vaginal dryness, you should use Ovestin vaginal plugs in a course of up to one month.

Another variant of the combined anti-menopausal drug is Angelique, whose composition consists in the content of estradiol and drospirenone. The advantage of this drug is the daily intake of only one pill without any interruptions. Also anti-menopausal drug with continuous hormonal activity is Divisek.

Early menopause - which doctor should I contact? In the presence or suspicion of the development of this condition should consult with such doctors as a gynecologist, oncologist, gerontologist.

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